Dear readers, to better understand our scientific articles, we are introducing to you basic terms of theoretical physics and The Space in simple words.
Read also: 3 Shocking Theories of How the World Works
Probably every schoolchild has heard about gravity. Many people know that this is the force that made the apple fall on Isaac Newton’s head.
The law of gravity is truly a “part” of gravity. In fact, gravity is the curvature of space around objects with mass. The heavier the object, the greater the curvature and the greater the “attraction” of the object. If you put a baby weighing 20 kilograms on a child’s mattress, and at a small distance of a well-fed cat weighing 10 kilograms, and put a ball between them, he will roll toward the baby, because he will push a large hole through his mass, that is, will curvature the space more.
At the same time, gravity is able to propagate in waves, like circles on water from an abandoned stone.
Most of the things in our universe can be seen because they interact with light. Such objects visible to us in different ways are just a fraction of everything in our universe.
An analysis of the gravitational interactions between these visible objects shows that the matter in our universe is much more (6 times) than it seems even to a well-armed instrument.
Imagine an apartment building at night. On its front side, there are several burning windows. Meanwhile, all its mass, invisible to us, is much larger than those shreds of light that are visible to the naked eye. This is the part of the house that we don’t see, but we understand that it is – because the light in the windows is not randomly scattered, but depends on the floor and apartment, and this is dark matter. That is, all studies and calculations show that it is, but it has not yet been possible to “detect” it.
Read also: Traveling in Time Now Possible
Black holes and singularity
Imagine a point in space as small as possible. But it’s very dense, hot and heavy. So heavy that one teaspoon of its substance cannot be lifted by any crane. Imagined? This is the “black hole”. It is black because it is not visible in the darkness of space (only on an infrared telescope – it is hot), and the hole – because in its infinite heaviness, it strongly attracts everything that it can reach, and does not let go anywhere. Moreover, this hole is actually a sphere.
And this cosmic object behaves purely like a cat – no matter how much food (matter and energy) you fill it with, eat everything and ask for more. And where this “food” for the hole disappears is unknown.
The difference between a cat and a hole is that what is happening inside the cat can be viewed on an X-ray, but what is inside a black hole – you will not see anywhere. The fact is that in the very center of it is the so-called singularity – the point of convergence of space and time, where all the laws of physics begin to go crazy.
There are no concepts of the past and the future, and time when falling into this same singularity is reversed. Light getting there cannot escape and overcome the gravity of this cosmic body, because it lacks neither strength nor speed.
However, scientists suggest that in reality a black hole is connected with a white hole in another dimension, and this singularity, where everything is compressed into a compact unity, is a bridge, a transition to another universe.
Why time flows differently on different planets
If a thirty-year-old earthman had fallen on Venus, he would immediately have become 48 Venusian years, but he would have lived only 47 Venusian days. Does that sound confusing? This happens because each of the planets has its own day duration (the period for which it turns around its axis) and the year, which depends on the length of the orbit and shows the period for which the planet makes a complete revolution around the Sun.
Those concepts that we put in the definitions of “year” and “day/day” on other planets have a completely different duration – the Venusian day lasts 243 Earth days, and the year – 227.8. So, for a year Venus does not have time to live even one day.
Worst of all is the non-planet Pluto. Since its discovery, not even half a year has passed by Plutonian standards, but by Earth – as much as 98 years. But this, so to speak, is only the “philological” side of the issue.
That is not all.
Time is also subject to gravity and can also “bend” like space. Proved by Albert Einstein. It is because of gravity on objects with a large mass that time “attracts” and flows more slowly.
For example, on the Moon or even Earth’s orbit, time goes faster due to a decrease in gravity, so the satellites synchronize their time with the Earth. But on the Sun, time will go much slower, because its mass is higher.
The same paradox explains the temporary anomaly in the center of the black hole. Gravity there reaches almost absolute, affecting at the same time.
Read also: God Does Not Exist – Says Stephen Hawking
To understand what string theory is, you need to understand what it is opposed to – that is Standard Theory.
“Standard” assumes that the universe consists of the smallest bricks – particles: various quarks, bosons and others. However, this theory can explain everything except the existence of heartless gravity. To the aid of scientists came string theory.
According to string theory, the world around us consists of ultramicroscopic strings – “clumps” of energy, so thin that they have not yet been discovered. At the same time, they vibrate and create visible and invisible dimensions for us – branes.
So, in addition to the three Cartesian dimensions and time visible to us, string theory offers seven more additional and invisible ones in which other universes are located. We can’t see them in any way, because we consist of particles that are usual for our measurement and which prevent us from reaching the beautiful far. But gravity helps to calculate these other universes that indirectly affect us (like the mythical planet Nibiru from tabloid newspapers – it seems to exist and affects our planet, but nobody has ever seen it in the eyes).
These additional dimensions complicate everything greatly, but nothing works without them. For now, the “strings” remain only equations on paper.
But string theory confirms that everything around is made up of energy, and this claims to be the theory of everything. Well, that is, our Universe is just the music of an invisible string orchestra.